Daily Plans and Classroom Notes, Worksheets and Resources
Article From 2/25/18 about Antibiotic Resistant Superbug
HHMI Video on link between Sickle Cell Anemia and Malaria
Animals with Insane Survival Adaptations
Evolution Primer #1: Isn't Evolution Just a Theory?
Evolution Primer #2: Who Was Charles Darwin?
Evolution Primer #3: How do we know evolution happens?
Evolution Primer #4: How does Evolution really work (Natural Selection)
Evolution Primer #5: Did Humans Evolve?
Evolution Primer #6: Why does Evolution Matter?
CK-12 Link to reading/videos on Evolution
Population: A group of organisms of the same species that live in the same area. Can reproduce together and produce fertile offspring.
Genetic Variation: Differences in the DNA among individuals in the population.
Mutation: A change in the DNA sequence. Mutations can lead to more genetic variation in a population. Mutations can be bad, neutral or good.
Selective Pressure: Any cause that reduces the reproductive success of a portion of the population: Ex: Lack of food, threats from predators, disease, abiotic factors (lack of water, pH of soil, etc), competition for resources, human manipulation
Adaptation: Differences in the DNA that increase the fitness of an individual in that environment and with those selective pressures. Ex: Blubber in cold environments. Gills to breath oxygen in water.
Fitness: The ability to survive and reproduce. (The more offspring you have the more "fit" you are for the environment).
Natural Selection: The process by which individuals with inherited characteristics well-suited to the environment leave more offspring on average than individuals without the adaptation.
Evolution: The process of change in a species over time.
Convergent Evolution: Species that do not have a close common ancestor have similar body forms because they live in similar environments. Ex: Bird and bat or dolphin and shark
Divergent Evolution: Similar Species changing over time Ex: Lion and Tiger
Macroevolution: One species splitting into two or more species
Speciation: Formation of a new species
Species: A group of similar organisms who can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
Microevolution: A change in the allele frequency in the population (more dark moths than light moths)
Geographical Isolation: Potential cause of speciation by separating a population by a physical barrier (ex: mountains, river, highway)
Reproductive Isolation: Potential cause of speciation by organisms no longer reproducing because of behavioral differences or mechanical issues
Stabilizing Selection: Favors the "average" individuals (graph highest in the middle)
Directional Selection: Favors individuals at one extreme end or the other. (graph highest at one of the ends)
Disruptive Selection: Favors individuals at both extremes and selects against the middle. Graph makes an "M" shape"
Adaptive Radiation: When one species evolves into many species to fit a number of diverse habitats. Ex: Darwin's Finches
Fossil Record: Fossils show changes over time
Homologous Structures: Structures that are similar in different species because of a common ancestor. Ex: Bone structure in whale flipper, arm of human, wing of bat
Analogous Structure: Species that have developed similar external structures (ex: Wings) but that have different internal anatomy. NOT evidence of common ancestor but of convergent evolution. Ex: Wing of birds and insects
Vestigial Structures: Structures that were functional in our common ancestors but are no longer functional today. Ex: Appendix and hip bones in whale
Comparative Cytology: Comparing the cell structures in different organisms as proof of evolution
Comparative Biochemistry: Comparing the molecules in cells in different organisms as proof of evolution
Comparative Embryology: Comparing the embryos of different species to look for similarities.